Most people will have the strong desire to conceive a child at some point during their lifetime.
The brain plays an important part in the control of the male reproductive system. A side view showing the main parts of the male reproductive system The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, located at the base of the brain, control the production of male hormones and sperm.
Luteinising hormone LH and follicle stimulating hormone FSH are the two important messenger hormones made by the pituitary gland that act on the testes.
Two messenger hormones act on the testes The testes testis: The testes make sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone. It takes about 70 days for sperm to become mature and able to fertilise an egg. At orgasm, waves of muscle contractions transport the sperm, with a small amount of fluid, from the testes through to the vas deferens.
The seminal vesicles and prostate contribute extra fluid to protect the sperm. This mixture of sperm and fluid the semen travels along the urethra to the tip of the penis where it is ejaculated released.
Diagnosis How is male infertility diagnosed? If a couple has been trying for a pregnancy without success, they should go to their local doctor or family planning clinic, and have some initial tests.
Male infertility may be a sign of other possibly undiagnosed health problems such as testosterone deficiency or coexisting testicular cancer, so it is important that it is investigated. Diagnosis can involve a medical history from the man and a physical examination along with a semen analysis to check the number, shape and movement of sperm in the ejaculate.
Blood tests may also be done to check the levels of hormones that control sperm production or for genetic testing. Testicular biopsies or testicular ultrasound are sometimes done.
Treatment How is male infertility treated? One in eight infertile men has a treatable condition, and after treatment, couples can become pregnant naturally.
In some cases, the doctor will recommend that the couple seek assisted reproductive technologies ARTsuch as IVF in vitro fertilisation. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI is a form of IVF where a single sperm is placed directly into each egg by piercing the outer covering of the egg.
ICSI is particularly helpful for men with poor sperm production. Sperm are collected from the semen or removed carefully from the testis or epididymis.
It is best to avoid cigarette smoking, excess alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, heat stress from tight fitting underwear, and anabolic steroids taken for body building or sporting purposes as these factors can be harmful to the production of sperm.
It is recommended that couples trying to conceive avoid exposure to any possibly harmful chemicals. Can older age cause male fertility problems? Healthy men in their 70s and beyond can still father children, however the time taken for a partner to become pregnant is longer when a man is middle-aged or older.
Reasons for this may include a decrease in sexual activity, lower semen volume, changes to sperm motility movementa lower number of motile sperm, and possibly lower sperm function and DNA quality.
The chance of the child having some genetic or chromosomal problem is also increased for older men. What emotions might a man experience when diagnosed with infertility?
Men may be shocked when they find out they are infertile. Therefore, when men are told there is a sperm problem, they are often unprepared.
Most infertile men at some time struggle with the idea that they are not able to do what other men can. An emotional response to infertility is normal. Talking with a doctor or a sexual therapist or counsellor can help some men with their feelings about infertility.
Please note that the Andrology Australia website does not host any form of advertisement.Infertility treatment can be physically uncomfortable, time-consuming, exhausting, and costly - all without a guarantee of success. Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause.
Infertility - Cause. What is the cause . Doxorubicin binds to nucleic acids, presumably by specific intercalation of the planar anthracycline nucleus with the DNA double helix.
The anthracycline ring is lipophilic, but the saturated end of the ring system contains abundant hydroxyl groups adjacent to the amino sugar, producing a hydrophilic center.
Infertility and Testicular Disorders. In this Article Treatment for hypogonadism depends on the cause. Male hormone replacement Choosing an Infertility Treatment. Slideshow.
Clomiphene citrate is a white to pale yellow, essentially odorless, crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in methanol; soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in acetone, water, and chloroform; and insoluble in ether. A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
There are both male and female condoms. With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate.
With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year. In cases where the above treatments are unsuccessful, or when the cause of male infertility is unknown or untreatable, IUI treatment or IVF treatment may be suggested.
IUI treatment, where the sperm is transferred into the uterus via the cervix, is commonly used in cases of low sperm count or quality.