Many industries in Canada, such as the Canadian construction and manufacturing sectors, have been unable to find enough skilled workers trained in skilled trades such as building, plumbing, welding and crane operations.
Steel pipe[ edit ] Steel pipe or black iron pipe was once the most popular choice for supply of water and flammable gases. Steel pipe is still used in many homes and businesses to convey natural gas or propane fuel, and is a popular choice in fire sprinkler systems due to its high heat resistance.
In commercial buildings, steel pipe is used to convey heating or cooling water to heat exchangersair handlers, variable air volume VAV devices, or other HVAC equipment.
Steel pipe is sometimes joined using threaded connections, where tapered threads see National Pipe Thread are cut into the end of the tubing segment, sealant is applied in the form of thread sealing compound or thread seal tape also known as PTFE or Teflon tapeand it is then threaded into a corresponding threaded fitting using two pipe wrenches.
Beyond domestic or light commercial settings, steel pipe is often joined by weldingor by use of mechanical couplings made by companies such as Victaulic or Anvil International formerly Grinnell that hold the pipe joint together via a groove pressed or cut a rarely used older practiceinto the ends of the pipes.
Other variations of steel pipe include various stainless steel and chrome alloys. In high-pressure situations these are usually joined by TIG welding. It must however be marked either painted yellow or yellow banding attached at certain intervals and certain restrictions apply to which nominal pipe size NPS can be put through walls and buildings.
With propane in particular, BIP can be run from an exterior tank or cylinder provided it is well protected from the weather, and an anode -type of protection from corrosion is in place when the pipe is to be installed underground. Copper tubing Copper tubing is most often used for supply of hot and cold water, and as refrigerant line in HVAC systems.
There are two basic types of copper tubing, soft copper and rigid copper. Copper tubing is joined using flare connection, compression connection, or solder. Copper offers a high level of resistance to corrosion, but is becoming very costly.
Soft copper[ edit ] Soft or ductile copper tubing can be bent easily to travel around obstacles in the path of the tubing. It can be joined by any of the three methods used for rigid copper, and it is the only type of copper tubing suitable for flare connections. Soft copper is the most popular choice for refrigerant lines in split-system air conditioners and heat pumps.
Flare connections[ edit ] Flare connections require that the end of a tubing section be spread outward in a bell shape using a flare tool. A flare nut then compresses this bell-shaped end onto a male fitting. Flare connections are a labor-intensive method of making connections, but are quite reliable over the course of many years.
Rigid copper[ edit ] Rigid copper is a popular choice for water lines. Rigid copper, rigid due to the work hardening of the drawing process, cannot be bent and must use elbow fittings to go around corners or around obstacles.
Soldered connections[ edit ] Solder fittings are smooth, and easily slip onto the end of a tubing section. Both the male and female ends of the pipe or pipe connectors are coated with flux to make sure there is no surface oxide and to ensure that the solder will bond properly with the base metal.
The joint is then heated using a torchand solder is melted into the connection. When the solder cools, it forms a very strong bond which can last for decades. Solder-connected rigid copper is the most popular choice for water supply lines in modern buildings.
In situations where many connections must be made at once such as plumbing of a new buildingsolder offers much quicker and much less expensive joinery than compression or flare fittings.
The term sweating is sometimes used to describe the process of soldering pipes. Compression connections[ edit ] Compression fittings use a soft metal or thermoplastic ring the compression ring or "ferrule" which is squeezed onto the pipe and into the fitting by a compression nut.
The soft metal conforms to the surface of the tubing and the fitting, and creates a seal. Compression connections do not typically have the long life that sweat connections offer, but are advantageous in many cases because they are easy to make using basic tools.
A disadvantage in compression connections is that they take longer to make than sweat, and sometimes require retightening over time to stop leaks.
Crimped or pressed connections[ edit ] Crimped or pressed connections use special copper fittings which are permanently attached to rigid copper tubing with a powered crimper.The Nation's Leading Advocate of Women-Owned businesses as suppliers to America's Corporations.
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The NOC or National Occupations Classifications list – Categories O, A and B.
Out of these, Category O. Canada Occupation in Demand list and skilled worker list.
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