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It would become influential in French printing from the s. The roman designs of Garamond which are his most imitated were based on a font cut around for the Venetian printer Aldus Manutius by engraver Francesco Griffo.
His graceful and delicate typefaces, based on the work of Aldus Manutius thirty-five years earlier, redefined practices in French printing; never before had a complete roman typeface been made to such a large size, and the use of multiple sizes cut in the same style allowed harmony between headings and body text.
His typefaces were either cut by or defined the style in which Garamond worked. The Griffo font was only cut in a single size, so French punchcutters made modified versions of the design to suit different sizes, with a more delicate structure at larger sizes.
Confusion about which engravers created which typefaces is natural since many were active over this time, creating typefaces not just in the Latin alphabet in roman and italic, but also in Greek and Hebrew for scholarly use. Garamond designed type for the Greek alphabet from the beginning of his attested career, but his most celebrated work in Greek, the Grecs du roi fonts, commissioned for the French government in are very different to his Latin designs: The grecs du roi type, the contract for which survives, is the type with which Garamond enters the historical record, although it is clearly not the work of a beginner.
Earlier fonts that may have been cut by Garamond have been suggested but the attribution is less certain. It appears in a book from printer Andreas Wechel, of German origins.
Robert Granjon Many modern revival fonts based on French renaissance printing are influenced by the work of Robert Granjon c.
His career also took in stops in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany and finally for the last twelve years of his life Rome, where he ended his career in the service of the Vatican.
Vervliet comments that Granjon "laid the foundation for our image of the way an Italic should look. Seeing that for some time many persons have had to do with the art [of printing] who have greatly lowered it Jannon was a Protestant in mostly Catholic France.
After apparently working with the Estienne family in Paris he set up an independent career as printer in Sedan in what is now north-eastern France, becoming printer for the Protestant Academy.
By his report he took up punchcutting seriously in his thirties, although according to Williamson he would have cut decorative material and engravings at least before this.
Carter in the s followed this conclusion. I shall be happy to display my punches and matrices to all those who are lovers of true beauty The upheavals of the Revolution coincided with the major shift in the style of printing types that is associated with the family of Didotand the stock of old materials abruptly lost its value, except as scrap.
Punches rust, and the copper of matrices is recyclable. No relics of them were saved anywhere, except in commercial centres that had become relative backwaters, like Antwerp, where the Plantin-Moretus printing office piously preserved the collection of its founder Doubt was raised by French historian Jean Paillard, but he died in the First World War soon after publishing his conclusions in and his work remained little-read.
He discussed his concerns with ATF junior librarian Beatrice Wardewho would later move to Europe and become a prominent writer on printing advising the British branch of Monotype.
The German company Stempel brought out a crisp revival of the original Garamond typefaces in the s, inspired by a rediscovered specimen from the Egenolff-Berner foundry in Frankfurt, as did Linotype in Britain. The font used exemplifies the style preceding the s: De Colines, who probably engraved or at least commissioned his own typefaces, developed his style like his stepson to modernise his use of type over his lifetime, slimming down his fonts and increasing the influence of classical Roman capitals.
A title page from two decades later shows his style later in life. Its roman type sets a standard that would later be imitated by French printers. Other equipment is bought by other Parisian and German printers; a specimen sheet identifying his types is issued by a Frankfurt foundry in A decline sets into the production of new typefaces, probably mostly due to simple saturation of the market with typefaces of acceptable quality, and possibly also due to economic and religious factors causing the emigration of printers and typefounders to other countries.
Jannon is not imprisoned, but returns to Sedan. Warde subsequently moves to Europe, becoming a freelance writer on printing and adviser to Monotype in London. It is one of the most popular versions of Garamond in books and fine printing. Garamond Premier[ edit ] Slimbach started planning for a second interpretation of Garamond after visiting the Plantin-Moretus Museum induring the production of Adobe Garamond.
He concluded that a digital revival would not be definitive unless it offered optical sizes, with different fonts designed for different sizes of text. Stempel Garamond has relatively short descendersallowing it to be particularly tightly linespaced.
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