Scientific and philosophical underpinnings

Introduction[ edit ] Great advances in science have been termed "revolutions" since the 18th century. InClairaut wrote that " Newton was said in his own lifetime to have created a revolution". Lavoisier saw his theory accepted by all the most eminent men of his time, and established over a great part of Europe within a few years from its first promulgation. A new view of nature emerged, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for almost 2, years.

Scientific and philosophical underpinnings

It is chaired by the head of state or government of the country host of the Summit until the following Summit, and elects the Secretary General in accordance with the provisions of article six of the charter. Elected for four years by the heads of state and government, the Secretary General acts under the authority of the three main institutions of La Francophonie: In addition to chairing the Council, the secretary reports to the Summit.

Scientific and philosophical underpinnings General Secretariat One of the most significant reforms adopted at the Cotonou Summit was the establishment of the post of Secretary General.

In addition to chairing the Council, he acts as secretary of the three institutions and reports to the Summit. The Secretary General is La Francophonie's international political spokesperson and official representative. In the event of an emergency, he can refer a crisis involving members of the organization to the Permanent Council and to the chairperson of the Ministerial Conference.

The Secretary General is also the top official of the Agence de la Francophonie. In consultation with the agency's Principal Officer and the other recognized, direct operating agencies, he is responsible for proposing priority areas for multilateral Francophonie action.

He is also responsible for organizing multilateral cooperation within La Francophonie and ensures the harmonization of the programs and activities of all operating agencies.

Participants at the Conference plan the Summit, ensure that the decisions made during the event are carried out, and launch any resulting initiatives.

They are also responsible for recommending new members and observers to the Summit and for deciding the nature of their rights and obligations. The Ministerial Conference is chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs or the Minister responsible for Francophonie affairs of the country hosting the Summit, one year before and one year after the event.

The Ministerial Conference of Francophonie is composed of all the members of the Summit. The Foreign Minister or the minister in charge of Francophonie, or his delegate represents each member.

In addition, it handles the financial reports and examines the budget estimates of the Agency, and those of the direct operators recognized by the Summits. The Conference meets once a year, but in the event of an emergency it can meet at any time or on the request of at least ten members.

The decisions of the Ministerial Conference are made, if possible, by way of consensus. In addition to these meetings, La Francophonie has two permanent information and cooperation structures at the ministerial level: The purpose of CONFEMEN, a flexible and pragmatic institution, is to encourage cooperation and coordination in the area of education policies, and to conduct high-level discussions about the future of this sector.

It brings together more than 35 member states and governments and meets every two years. Its permanent secretariat is in Dakar. Since education is a provincial matter, Quebec and New Brunswick are especially active during the meetings of this permanent conference.

Scientific and philosophical underpinnings

Ontario and Manitoba are also represented in the Canadian delegation. Through its activities, CONFEJES seeks to create conditions that will foster the social and professional development of young people by establishing socio-educational structures and making sport a component of continuing education and social development.

In addition, since Canada established it inthe Canadian Scholarship Program Programme de bourses canadiennes has enabled more than people to be trained as executives of youth and physical education associations.

Sectoral Ministerial Conferences Sectoral ministerial conferences are convened periodically to discuss various areas of La Francophonie's multilateral cooperation.In its most generic sense, "Indian Materialism" refers to the school of thought within Indian philosophy that rejects supernaturalism.

It is regarded as the most radical of the Indian philosophical systems. It rejects the existence of other worldly entities such an immaterial soul or god and the. 1. a philosophical system developed by Auguste Comte, concerned with positive facts and phenomena, the flrst verifled by the methods of the empirical sciences, the second explainable by scientific laws.

Also called Comtism. 2. a contemporary philosophical movement stressing the task of philosophy as criticizing and analyzing science, and . A Metaphysics of Psychopathology (Philosophical Psychopathology): Medicine & Health Science Books @ In the history of the Indian subcontinent, following the establishment of an Aryan–Vedic culture, the development of philosophical and religious thought over a period of two millennia gave rise to what came to be called the six schools of astika, or orthodox, Indian or Hindu philosophy.

These schools have come to be synonymous with the greater . The philosophical underpinnings of the Scientific Revolution were laid out by Francis Bacon, who has been called the father of empiricism. His works established and popularised inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific demand for a planned procedure of .

Philosophical Underpinnings of the Strategic Continuum The Vienna Circle, a group formed by a philosopher Moritz Schlink () from the University of Vienna, referred to the philosophy of Bertrand Russell and Wittengenstein as logical positivism, and held that philosophy is not a theory but an activity whose business is the logical.

Philosophy - New World Encyclopedia