Like many leaders we meet, most in this group stand readily when asked if they have been through or led a major change initiative. Yet far fewer say yes when asked if they believe their organizations do a good job of leading and managing change. The good news is that they work in reverse, too.
For a software system, this can include managers, designers, and users of a system. Since, by definition, stakeholders are those who are impacted by or have an impact on the project, their perspectives need to be taken into account in order for a project to be successful.
A design must meet the business needs of the company, and must be supported by disparate members of the management team, in order to be actually implemented. User-centered design professionals pay special emphasis to one type of stakeholder—the users of the system—arguing that user experience needs to be carefully crafted to satisfy user needs.
While understanding user needs and goals is certainly necessary, it is often not sufficient for producing a successful design. Apart from an understanding of user needs and perspective, design needs to incorporate the goals and perspective of other stakeholders in order to get their buy-in and be considered a success in the corporate workplace.
Stakeholders are often in conflict with one another. For example, consider the design of a system for use in a manufacturing plant.
The goals of various organizational stakeholders might differ as well. Design occurs in this complex environment, and needs to fit into it. Edward Freeman called Strategic Management The word stakeholder was used to stand in contrast to the neoclassical view of the firm as catering to stockholders.
Freeman used the term stakeholder analysis to remind management that it was in the long-term interests of the company to pay attention to Success and failure in organizational change interests of those who have an impact on or are impacted by the activities of the company.
Stakeholders as users User experience professionals can benefit from the ideas about stakeholder analysis that have been developed in the field of Requirements Engineering. Requirements Engineering for software systems starts with the basic assumption that there will be multiple stakeholders with differing requirements, and that some requirements will be in conflict with other requirements Nuseibeh and Easterbrook, This is because different stakeholders have different goals in the previous example, the goal of the CFO was to track the assets of the company as accurately and efficiently as possible; the goal of the factory manager was to maximize factory output.
Systematically exploring this problem space of differing requirements can lead to the discovery of design solutions that meet the goals of the stakeholders while removing some requirements conflicts. The goal is to reduce requirements conflicts while maintaining as high a level of stakeholder satisfaction with the design as possible.
This way of thinking should be natural to user experience professionals, who are used to thinking systematically about user goals and resolving conflicts between those goals. In fact, it is easier than a typical design problem because: It is easier to reach organizational stakeholders, since they are members of the organization that you are working with.
Stakeholder goals are typically concrete, and explicitly tied to particular business or performance metrics for the purposes of compensation.
As a result, stakeholders will often be quite explicit about what their goals and what their objections to a given project might be. Focusing on business stakeholders and their goals is important for creating successful designs.
However, an exclusive focus on business stakeholders could lead to problems—producing a design that does not meet user needs, or is not technically feasible. Not paying attention to the strategic needs of the company and the particular goals of individual stakeholders often dooms a design to rejection by management, regardless of how well it might meet the needs of end users.
Many recent articles have discussed the need for user experience professionals to understand business requirements and context into their work McMullin,Lash, In our own work, we have made an effort to incorporate stakeholder analysis as a core process, done early in the design research phase of a project.
Goals of stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis serves a dual purpose. Information gleaned from stakeholder analysis is helpful in creating design solutions that are appropriate to the business context. This is important for making sure that user experience design moves in concert with the rest of the company.
Secondly, stakeholder analysis helps gain greater acceptance of design solutions. This goal is fulfilled even when it is not possible to fulfill the first goal.
For example, consider a redesign of an ecommerce site that has a risk of causing an immediate revenue reduction. Even if there is no way to eliminate the risk of revenue reduction, stakeholder analysis will help the user experience practitioner anticipate what the objections to this project could be and build a business case to show why the redesign is necessary for the long-term growth of revenue.
User experience projects have often had a difficult time winning support from management and development teams. This issue often arises later in the project cycle, by which point stakeholders already have had a chance to stake out their positions.
Our experience is that conducting stakeholder analysis early in the project gives us a chance to anticipate potential objections and take care of them upfront.Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure [Tim Harford] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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User-centered design professionals pay special emphasis to one type of stakeholder—the users of the system—arguing that user experience needs to be carefully crafted to satisfy user needs.
While understanding user needs and goals is certainly necessary, it is often not sufficient for producing a successful design. Organizational Change Management Success Stories by Panorama Consulting Solutions | May 28, It is a well-documented fact that organizational change management is one of the most important success factors for any ERP implementation.
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