Full Book Quiz 1. The merit system replaced the spoils system in most of the federal bureaucracy. Whistleblower protection is a source of bureaucratic power. What is agency capture?
Tue Oct 09, 7: It's just a way of quantifying which methods provide the "best" overload, where "best" means the method specializes on the most subclassed aka: You know, sometimes it is better to say "I'm sorry Dave, but your request is ambiguous", instead of behaving in an arbitrary way.
My algorithms will never result in arbitrary behavior. You'll note that the method-selection operation will return a set of the most-specific methods if a "tie" occurs rather than selecting an arbitrary method.
The problem with trying to tell the programmer their request was ambiguous is that you often cannot prove an ambiguity exists until runtime, when the actual types rather than declared types, which could be superclasses of the arguments are known.
In the exceptional case in which none of the declared types of the arguments have subclasses you can prove the presence of an ambiguity where one occurs, and I certainly think that a good compiler should detect this and throw an error on it, but you cannot detect an ambiguous request in the general case at compile time.
Unless you mean "these nodes, and all children of these nodes, should be considered"? That's actually precisely what I meant. If the type-checking algorithm runs at compile time and removes a node X from the DAG, it also removes X's children.
However, any nodes left after the compile-time type-checker has run are eligible for The federal bureaucracy multiple choice questions on that call at run-time.
Remember, the type-checker, if run at compile time, runs given a sequence of types representing what the compiler knows about the types given to a specific call of the generic function. The type-checker only has perfect knowledge of the applicable types if it works at run-time.
That's a pretty strange claim, but I guess if you mean "with a list of parameter types" broadly enough, it works. First of all, I said "without a list of parameter types". With no knowledge of the types of the actual arguments passed to a generic function, you only have a generic-function call that is, by definition, ambiguous, and you cannot prove whether an ambiguity will or won't occur at runtime.
And I did misspeak there. To prove the presence of a run-time ambiguity, you need perfect knowledge of the types of the actual, run-time types upon which the generic function dispatches.
So I should say, given partial ie: So, a serious problem with your algorithm. Given classes A and B child of A suppose the programmer decides to abstract out some property of B.
She creates a class C, takes some properties of B and moves it to C, and changes the class hierachy to: A, C child of A, and B child of C. Under your algorithm, this can cause large changes in overload ordering in arbitrary code -- because B just became a 'better fit' for an overload, even compared to completely unrelated classes that do not give a shit about class C.
Yes, under my algorithm that does cause large changes in overload ordering in arbitrary code precisely because B just became a "better fit" for the overload -- under one condition.
For arbitrary overload reordering to occur, the expression passed into the generic-function call must be declared or inferred as evaluating to an object of class B. So yeah, if the programmer abstracts out functionality into C and leaves all their old code making use of class B and calling generic functions with objects of class B, my algorithm will cause the overload resolutions to favor a method specialized on B.
If the programmer passes in an instance of C that is not an instance of B, both compile-time and run-time type-checking should rule out any method specializing on B, no matter how high its specificity.
For proper semantics, one of these DAGs should always be operated upon in this order: This gives us a comparatively small, sorted sequence of the most specific methods applicable to the types of the given arguments.
As a short note of something I realized after my original post, these nodes will always be leaf nodes of the original DAG.
If a node has children, those children are more specific than it by definition of a child nodetherefore all nodes with children are not the most-specific nodes.
Therefore, only nodes without children are eligible to be the most specific methods represented by the input DAG. The stricken text is demonstrably and demonstrated incorrect. Where that is proved, run-time checking for an ambiguity exception can be eliminated.
And that ignores the fact that multiple interface inheritance is a requirement for a language that isn't junk. I don't understand why a language whose object system is based on generic functions and multimethods should have interfaces in the first place.The federal bureaucracy is effective.
The federal bureaucracy is always expanding. The federal bureaucracy is wasteful and inefficient. The federal bureaucracy is buried in red tape. The Bureaucracy quiz that tests what you know. Perfect prep for The Bureaucracy quizzes and tests you might have in school. Chapter Thirteen The Federal Bureaucracy: Administering the Government Test Questions Multiple Choice 1.
A principle of bureaucratic organization is. Discuss machine bureaucracy the professional bureaucracy Discuss machine bureaucracy the professional bureaucracy.
Multiple choice question: Question vetconnexx.com formal structures of organizations may be shown in a (n) ____. a) Environmental diagram.
b) Organization chart.
Mar 01, · Civil service is the workforce employed by the government to carry out its duties - sort of mirroring the military vetconnexx.com are distinct from bureaucracy which is the vetconnexx.com: Resolved.
Public Administration: Power and Politics in the Fourth Branch of Government presents public administration through the lens of politics and the policy-making power of the bureaucracy.
By showing how the bureaucracy influences daily life, Smith and Licari bring the Price: $