A Ancient History India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made.
Visit Website All healthy male Spartan citizens participated in the compulsory state-sponsored education system, the Agoge, which emphasized obedience, endurance, courage and self-control. Spartan men devoted their lives to military service, and lived communally well into adulthood.
They were farmers, domestic servants, nurses and military attendants. Spartans, who were outnumbered by the Helots, often treated them brutally and oppressively in an effort to prevent uprisings. Spartans would humiliate the Helots by doing such things as forcing them to get debilitatingly drunk on wine and then make fools of themselves in public.
This practice was also intended to demonstrate to young people how an adult Spartan should never act, as self-control was a prized trait. Methods of mistreatment could be far more extreme: Spartans were allowed to kill Helots for being too smart or too fit, among other reasons.
The Spartan Military Unlike such Greek city-states as Athens, a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, Sparta was centered on a warrior culture.
Male Spartan citizens were allowed only one occupation: Indoctrination into this lifestyle began early. Spartan boys started their military training at age 7, when they left home and entered the Agoge. The boys lived communally under austere conditions. They were subjected to continual physical, competitions which could involve violencegiven meager rations and expected to become skilled at stealing food, among other survival skills.
The teenage boys who demonstrated the most leadership potential were selected for participation in the Crypteia, which acted as a secret police force whose primary goal was to terrorize the general Helot population and murder those who were troublemakers.
At age 20, Spartan males became full-time soldiers, and remained on active duty until age In the phalanx, the army worked as a unit in a close, deep formation, and made coordinated mass maneuvers.
No one soldier was considered superior to another. Going into battle, a Spartan soldier, or hoplite, wore a large bronze helmet, breastplate and ankle guards, and carried a round shield made of bronze and wood, a long spear and sword. Spartan warriors were also known for their long hair and red cloaks.
Spartan Women and Marriage Spartan women had a reputation for being independent-minded, and enjoyed more freedoms and power than their counterparts throughout ancient Greece.
While they played no role in the military, female Spartans often received a formal education, although separate from boys and not at boarding schools. In part to attract mates, females engaged in athletic competitions, including javelin-throwing and wrestling, and also sang and danced competitively.
As adults, Spartan women were allowed to own and manage property. Additionally, they were typically unencumbered by domestic responsibilities such as cooking, cleaning and making clothing, tasks which were handled by the helots.
Marriage was important to Spartans, as the state put pressure on people to have male children who would grow up to become citizen-warriors, and replace those who died in battle.
Men who delayed marriage were publically shamed, while those who fathered multiple sons could be rewarded.
In preparation for marriage, Spartan women had their heads shaved; they kept their hair short after they wed. Married couples typically lived apart, as men under 30 were required to continue residing in communal barracks. In order to see their wives during this time, husbands had to sneak away at night.
Decline of the Spartans In B. In a further blow, late the following year, Thebangeneral Epaminondas c. The Spartans would continue to exist, although as a second-rate power in a long period of decline. In ,Ottothe king of Greece, ordered thefounding of the modern-daytown of Spartion the site of ancient Sparta.Ancient History India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization.
It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India.
The Ancient Greeks: History and Culture from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander offers students a comprehensive introduction to the history and culture of the ancient Greek world for the period c BC.5/5(1).
Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome.
Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature. The Ancient Greeks: History and Culture from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander offers students a comprehensive introduction to the history and culture of the ancient 5/5(1). Ancient History and Culture The Roman Empire and Qing Dynasty are now only ruins, but there’s far more to discover about the ancient world.
Explore classical history, mythology, language and literature, and learn more about the many fascinating figures of the ancient world. Ancient History and Culture.
The Roman Empire and Qing Dynasty are now only ruins, but there’s far more to discover about the ancient world. Explore classical history, mythology, language and literature, and learn more about the .