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First we'll need to understand polarization of plane waves, then we'll walk through the main types of antenna polarization. Linear Polarization Let's start by understanding the polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave. A plane electromagnetic EM wave is characterized by electric and magnetic fields traveling in a single direction with no field variation in the two orthogonal directions.
In this case, the electric field and the magnetic field are perpendicular to each other and to the direction the plane wave is propagating. In equation 1the symbol is a unit vector a vector with a length of onewhich says that the E-field "points" in the x-direction.
A plane wave is illustrated graphically in Figure 1. Polarization is the figure that the E-field traces out while propagating. The amplitude of this field is plotted in Figure 2 at several instances of time. The field is oscillating at frequency f.
Observed at the origin, the E-field oscillates back and forth in magnitude, always directed along the x-axis. Because the E-field stays along a single line, this field would be said to be linearly polarized.
In addition, if the x-axis was parallel to the ground, this field could also be described as "horizontally polarized" or sometimes h-pole in the industry. If the field was oriented along the y-axis, this wave would be said to be "vertically polarized" or v-pole.
A linearly polarized wave does not need to be along the horizontal or vertical axis. For instance, a wave with an E-field constrained to lie along the line shown in Figure 3 would also be linearly polarized.
Locus of E-field amplitudes for a linearly polarized wave at an angle. The E-field in Figure 3 could be described by equation 2.
The E-field now has an x- and y- component, equal in magnitude. One thing to notice about equation 2 is that the x- and y-components of the E-field are in phase - they both have the same magnitude and vary at the same rate. Circular Polarization Suppose now that the E-field of a plane wave was given by equation 3: In this case, the x- and y- components are 90 degrees out of phase.
The E-field in Figure 4 rotates in a circle. This type of field is described as a circularly polarized wave. To have circular polarization, the following criteria must be met: Criteria for Circular Polarization The E-field must have two orthogonal perpendicular components.
The E-field's orthogonal components must have equal magnitude. The orthogonal components must be 90 degrees out of phase. If the wave in Figure 4 is travelling out of the screen, the field is rotating in the counter-clockwise direction and is said to be Right Hand Circularly Polarized RHCP.
Elliptical Polarization If the E-field has two perpendicular components that are out of phase by 90 degrees but are not equal in magnitude, the field will end up Elliptically Polarized.
The locus of points that the tip of the E-field vector would assume is given in Figure 5. Tip of E-field for elliptical polarized wave of Eq. The field in Figure 5, travels in the counter-clockwise direction, and if travelling out of the screen would be Right Hand Elliptically Polarized.
If the E-field vector was rotating in the opposite direction, the field would be Left Hand Elliptically Polarized. In addition, elliptical polarization can be defined by its axial ratio, which is the ratio of the major and minor axis amplitudes.The Wave Theory of Light The wave theory of light was the way we first understood light.
The theory was spread most significantly by Robert . Hams have been successful end-feeding resonant half wavelength antennas for decades.
Typically, a parallel tuned circuit is used at the end of the antenna with the feed line link coupled or tapped to the coil in the circuit. I found empirically that the impedance of this antenna is about to ohms when things are adjusted properly.
Transverse wave: Transverse wave, motion in which all points on a wave oscillate along paths at right angles to the direction of the wave’s advance. Surface ripples on water, seismic S (secondary) waves, and electromagnetic (e.g., radio and light) waves are examples of transverse waves.
A simple transverse wave . Elliott Wave Theory is named after Ralph Nelson Elliott (28 July – 15 January ). He was an American accountant and author. Inspired by the Dow Theory and by observations found throughout nature, Elliott concluded that the movement of the stock market could be predicted by observing and.
Let's ask Glenn Neely: Have you thought about creating an Elliott Wave software or NEoWave software? When asked about this topic in one of his recorded interviews, Glenn Neely said this: "I tried for years to get to the point where Wave Theory could be automated and mechanical.
The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g.
water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves. It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid dynamics.. Historically, the problem of a vibrating string such as that of a musical.