Honors Chemistry is designed for students who have demonstrated strong ability in previous science courses. In this fast-paced, demanding course, the main topics--which include atomic theory, nuclear chemistry, periodicity, chemical reactions, stoichiometry, gases, solutions, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, acid-base theory, oxidation-reduction, and organic chemistry--are studied at an advanced level, with an focus on both conceptual understanding and problem-solving. Quantitative aspects of chemical concepts are emphasized throughout the course.
A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. The bond between the two atoms of any diatomic gas, such as chlorine gas, Cl2, is certainly equally shared. The two chlorine atoms have exactly the same pull on the pair of electrons, so the bond must be exactly equally shared.
In cesium fluoride the cesium atom certainly donates an electron and the fluoride atom certainly craves an electron. The amount of pull on an atom has on a shared pair writing and naming polyatomic compounds worksheet electrons, called electronegativity, is what determines the type of bond between atoms.
Considering the Periodic Table without the inert gases, electronegativity is greatest in the upper right of the Periodic Table and lowest at the bottom left.
The bond in francium fluoride should be the most ionic. Some texts refer to a bond that is between covalent and ionic called a polar covalent bond. There is a range of bond between purely ionic and purely covalent that depends upon the electronegativity of the atoms around that bond.
If there is a large difference in electronegativity, the bond has more ionic character. If the electronegativity of the atoms is more similar, the bond has more covalent character.
Lewis Structures Lewis structures are an opportunity to better visualize the valence electrons of elements. In the Lewis model, an element symbol is inside the valence electrons of the s and p subshells of the outer ring.
It is not very convenient to show the Lewis structures of the Transition Elements, the Lanthanides, or Actinides. The inert gases are shown having the element symbol inside four groups of two electrons symbolized as dots.
Two dots are above the symbol, two below, two on the right, and two on the left. The inert gases have a full shell of valence electrons, so all eight valence electrons appear. Halogens have one of the dots missing.
It does not matter on which side of the symbol the dot is missing. Group 1 elements and hydrogen are shown with a single electron in the outer shell. Group 2 elements are shown with two electrons in the outer shell, but those electrons are not on the same side. Group 3 elements have three dots representing electrons, but the electrons are spread around to one per position, as in Group 2 elements.
Group 4 elements, carbon, silicon, etc. Group 5 elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc. In only one position are there two electrons. So Group 5 elements such as nitrogen can either accept three electrons to become a triple negative ion or join in a covalent bond with three other items.
When all three of the unpaired electrons are involved with a covalent bond, there is yet another pair of electrons in the outside shell of Group 5 elements.
Group 6 elements, oxygen, sulfur, etc. Group 7 elements have all of the eight outside electrons spaces filled except for one. The Lewis structure of a Group 7 element will have two dots in all four places around the element symbol except for one.
Chlorine atoms have seven electrons each and would be a lot more stable with eight electrons in the outer shell. Single chlorine atoms just do not exist because they get together in pairs to share a pair of electrons.
The shared pair of electrons make a bond between the atoms.
In Lewis structures, the outside electrons are shown with dots and covalent bonds are shown by bars. This covalent bond between chlorine is one of the most covalent bonds known.
A covalent bond is the sharing of a pair of electrons. The two atoms on either side of the bond are exactly the same, so the amount of "pull" of each atom on the electrons is the same, and the electrons are shared equally.
Methane, CH4, is such a molecule. If there were just a carbon and a single hydrogen, the bond between them would not be perfectly covalent. Hydrogen has a slightly lower electronegativity than carbon, so the electrons in a single H-C bond would, on average, be closer to the carbon than the hydrogen.
Carbon would be more negative. But the Lewis structure below shows that there are four hydrogens around a carbon atom, and that they are evenly separated. In the CH4 molecule, the four hydrogen atoms exactly balance each other out.
The Lewis structure of methane does not have any electrons left over. The carbon began with four electrons and each hydrogen began with two electrons.The formula writing and naming of polyatomic ionic compounds is similar to the process for binary compounds.
For example, making a compound using aluminum metal and nitrate yields.
View Polyatomic Compounds from PHYSICS at St John Vianney High School. WRITING AND NAMING POLYATOMIC COMPOUNDS WORKSHEET Write a correct formula for each of the following polyatomic. Practice naming ionic compounds when given the formula Naming ions and ionic compounds.
Expert Reviewed. How to Write a Chemical Equation. Three Parts: Writing Chemical Formulas of Covalent Compounds Writing Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Determining the Products Given Reactants Community Q&A A good way to think about a chemical reaction is the process of baking cookies. You mix the ingredients together . Predicting and Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds Worksheet Name You are required to know numbers of atoms and charge on the following polyatomic ions: Name of the ion Phosphate ion Hydrogen phosphate ion Dihydrogen phosphate ion Carbonate ion Hydrogen carbonate ion Chemical structure Name of the ion Chemical structure . How to Write a Chemical Equation. In this Article: Article Summary Writing Chemical Formulas of Covalent Compounds Writing Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Determining the Products Given Reactants Community Q&A A good way to think about a chemical reaction is the process of baking cookies. You mix the ingredients together (flour, butter, salt, sugar, and eggs), bake it, and see that it.
Common polyatomic ions. Polyatomic ions. Naming ionic compound with polyvalent ion. Finding formula for ionic compounds. Practice: Predict the charge on monatomic ions.
Learn how to name monatomic ions and ionic compounds containing monatomic ions, predict charges for monatomic ions, and understand formulas. Naming monatomic ions and ionic compounds. Common polyatomic ions. Polyatomic ions. The same convention is used when writing their chemical formulas.
Ionic compounds must be . Naming Compounds with Transition Metals and Polyatomic Ions Worksheet (DOC 26 KB) Naming and Writing Compounds Simplified Rules Worksheet (DOC 38 KB) Naming and Chemical Formula Writing of Ionic Compounds Worksheet (DOC 26 KB) doc file: You need the Microsoft Word program, a free Microsoft Word.
Formulas and Nomenclature of Ionic and Covalent Compounds.
Adapted from McMurry/Fay, section , p. Polyatomic Ions Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Metals combine with nonmetals to give ionic compounds. When naming binary ionic compounds, name the .